|May 5, 1998||
Press Contact: William Harms|
University of Chicago Study Shows Major Differences in Sexual Practices Between the United States and Britain
A new University of Chicago study of sex habits in the United States and Britain shows that Americans are more likely than Britons to have multiple sex partners, which may explain why the rates of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases are much higher in the United States than Britain.
The study also showed that in the United States, a higher percentage of people remain virgins. Americans are also more likely to hold strong views against non-marital sexual behavior than Britons, according to the article Private Sexual Behavior, Public Opinion, and Public Health Policy Related to Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A U.S.-British Comparison. to be published May 5 in the American Journal of Public Health.
There is great public resistance in the United States to addressing forthrightly the risks of having many sexual partners and of engaging in risky sexual practices, said the principal author of the paper, Robert Michael, Dean of the Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies at the University of Chicago. That resistance results in large part from the strong opinions that such behavior is preemptively unacceptable, not that it is risky. Our public health may be the high price we pay for our public opinion.
The study found that while 25 percent of American men feel that pre-marital sex is wrong, only eight per cent of British men held such an opinion. Among women, 33 percent of Americans and 11 percent of Britons felt pre-marital sex is always wrong. Among American men, 89 per cent felt that extramarital sex is wrong, while 77 percent of British men held such an opinion. Among women, 94 percent of Americans and 83 percent of Britons felt that extramarital sex is wrong.
In Britain, public health leaders have been better able to inform people of the risks of sexually transmitted diseases. Information about condoms was more widely available in Britain, for instance, than in the United States. As a result, condom use is greater in Britain, where 23 percent of the heterosexual men use them, as opposed to 18 percent of American men.
The 1996 rates of AIDS was 256 per million in the United States and 24 per million in Britain. The 1994 gonorrhea rate in the United States was 246 per 100,000 among people between the ages of 15 to 64. In Britain, the rate was 33 per 100,000 for the same age group.
The article is the first major study of the differences in sexual activity and public policy toward sexually related public health issues in the two countries. Among its other findings are these:
Differences in sexual activity may explain some of the disparity, the article reported. There is strong evidence that the risks of contracting a sexually transmitted disease are closely associated with the number of sexual partners, Michael said. The increase of the risk is dramatic as the number of sex partners rises, he said.
Michael was one of the principal investigators for the landmark 1992 National Health and Social Life Survey, conducted by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago. Edward Laumann, the George Herbert Mead Distinguished Service Professor of Sociology and Chairman of the Department of Sociology, also a principal investigator in the 1992 study, is a co-author of the American Journal of Public Health article.
Data from the National Health and Social Life Survey and a similar survey conducted between May 1990 and December 1991 in England, Wales and Scotland was used for the study.
Other co-authors of the American Journal of Public Health article are the late Jane Wadsworth, a researcher with the Imperial College School of Medicine at St. Marys, London; Joel Feinleib, a graduate student at the Harris School at the University of Chicago, Anne Johnson, a researcher with the University College, London Medical School, London; and Kaye Wellings, a researcher with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
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